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The LinGO Grammar Matrix is a framework for the development of broad-coverage, precision, implemented grammars for diverse languages. Building from experience with broad-coverage implemented HPSG grammars of English (the LinGO ERG), German (DFKI's proprietary grammar), and Japanese (the JACY grammar), and a smaller-scale grammar of Spanish, we are working to extract the components that are common across these grammars and therefore may be useful in the development of new grammars. Since 2005, we have also been developing a series of libraries, accessible through a web-based customization system, which provide analyses of crosslinguistically variable phenomena.
The goals of the project are:
To obtain a current version of the Matrix which is configured for certain typological properties of the language you wish to work on, please visit the Matrix customization page. We are interested in knowing who is using the Matrix, and in receiving feedback on what aspects of the Matrix do and don't work as it is applied to new languages. Conversely, the documentation of the Matrix is still under construction, so we are happy to answer questions via email.
The source code for the customization system itself is available through svn:
svn co --username guest svn://lemur.ling.washington.edu/shared/matrix/trunk
The guest account as the empty string as its password. The source code is distributed under the MIT license. As with grammars derived from the customization system, research building on the customization system source code should cite Bender et al 2010 [.bib] for the customization system and Bender, Flickinger and Oepen 2002 [.bib] for the core grammar and project conception.
Visit the DELPH-IN Discourse site, especially topics tagged "Grammar Matrix". Feel free to post questions there!
The lab assignments and lecture notes for a grammar engineering course (UW Ling 567) taught using the Matrix are available here. [Thanks to Petter Haugereid for the inspiration for this course.] Here is a list of languages for which students in Ling 567 at UW have built Matrix-derived grammars.
Zamaraeva, Olga, Chris Curtis, Guy Emerson, Antske Fokkens, Michael Wayne Goodman, Kristen Howell, T.J. Trimble, and Emily M. Bender. 2022. 20 years of the Grammar Matrix: cross-linguistic hypothesis testing of increasingly complex interactions. Journal of Language Modeling 10(1) Special Section on the Interaction between Formal and Computational Linguistics. p.49-137.
Elizabeth Conrad. 2021. Tracing and Reducing Lexical Ambiguity in Automatically Inferred Grammars MS thesis, University of Washington.
Olga Zamaraeva. 2021. Assembling Syntax: Modeling Constituent Questions in a Grammar Engineering Framework. PhD thesis, University of Washington.
Kristen Howell. 2020. Inferring Grammars from Interlinear Glossed Text: Extracting Typological and Lexical Properties for the Automatic Generation of HPSG Grammars. PhD thesis, University of Washington.
Zamaraeva, Olga, Kristen Howell and Emily M. Bender. 2019. Modeling Clausal Complementation for a Grammar Engineering Resource. Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics Vol. 2, Article 6.
Curtis, Chris. 2018. Valence-Changing Morphology via Lexical Rule Composition. In Müller, Stefan and Frank Richter, eds. Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, pp.36-48. University of Tokyo.
Howell, Kristen,Olga Zamaraeva,and Emily M. Bender. 2018. Nominalized Clauses in the Grammar Matrix. In Müller, Stefan and Frank Richter, eds. Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, pp.68-88. University of Tokyo.
Nielsen, Elizabeth and Emily M. Bender. 2018. Modeling Adnominal Possession in Multilingual Grammar Engineering. In Müller, Stefan and Frank Richter, eds. Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, pp.140-153. University of Tokyo.
Howell, Kristen and Zamaraeva, Olga. 2018. Clausal Modifiers in the Grammar Matrix. In Proceedings of COLING 2018, Santa Fe, NM.
Zamaraeva, Olga, Kristen Howell, and Emily M. Bender. 2018. A Cross-Linguistic Account of Subordinator and Subordinate Clause Position. Poster presented at HPSG 2018.
Elizabeth Nielsen. 2018. Modeling Adnominal Possession in the LinGO Grammar Matrix
Chris Curtis. 2018. A Parametric Implementation of Valence-changing Morphoplogy in the LinGO Grammar Matrix. MS thesis, University of Washington.
Haeger, Michael. 2017. An Evidentiality Library for the LinGO Grammar Matrix. MS thesis, University of Washington.
Song, Sanghoun. 2017. Modeling information structure in a cross-linguistic perspective. Language Science Press.
Bender, Emily M. 2016. Linguistic Typology in Natural Language Processing. Linguistic Typology 20(3):645-660.
Trimble, Thomas J. 2014. Adjectives in the LinGO Grammar Matrix. MS thesis, University of Washington.
Emily M. Bender. 2014. Language CoLLAGE: Grammatical Description with the LinGO Grammar Matrix Proceedings of LREC 2014. [.bib]
Song, Sanghoun. 2014. A Grammar Library for Information Structure. Doctoral dissertation, University of Washington.
Wax, David. 2014. Automated Grammar Engineering for Verbal Morphology. MS thesis, University of Washington.
Bender, Emily M. and Alex Lascarides. 2013. On Modeling Scope of Inflectional Negation. In P. Hofmeister and E. Norcliffe (eds). The Core and the Periphery: Data-driven Perspectives on Syntax Inspired by Ivan A. Sag. Stanford: CSLI Publications. p.101-124.
Goodman, Michael Wayne. 2013. Generation of Machine-Readable Morphological Rules with Human Readable Input. UW Working Papers in Linguistics: 30.
Fokkens, Antske, Emily M. Bender and Varvara Gracheva. 2012. LinGO Grammar Matrix Customization System Documentation. Online resource.
Bender, Emily M., Robert Schikowski, and Balthasar Bickel. 2012. Deriving a Lexicon for a Precision Grammar from Language Documentation Resources: A Case Study of Chintang. Proceedings of COLING 2012 [.bib]
Crowgey, Joshua. 2012. The Syntactic Exponence of Negation: A Model for the LinGO Grammar Matrix. Masters thesis, University of Washington.
Crowgey, Joshua. 2012. An a priori Typology of Sentential Negation from an HPSG Perspective. In Müller, Stefan, ed. Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, Chungnam National University Daejeon. pp.107-122. [.bib]
Song, Sanghoun and Emily M. Bender. 2012. Individual Constraints for Information Structure. In Müller, Stefan, ed. Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, Chungnam National University Daejeon. pp.330-348. [.bib]
Bender, Emily M., Sumukh Ghodke, Timothy Baldwin, and Rebecca Dridan. 2012. From Database to Treebank: Enhancing Hypertext Grammars with Grammar Engineering and Treebank Search. Nordhoff, Sebastian and Poggeman, Karl-Ludwig G., eds. Electronic Grammaticography. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. pp.179-206.
Bender, Emily M., David Wax, and Michael Wayne Goodman. 2012. From IGT to Precision Grammar: French Verbal Morphology. LSA Annual Meeting Extended Abstracts 2012
Bender, Emily M. 2012. Multilingual Grammar Engineering with the LinGO Grammar Matrix. Poster presented at the LSA organized session 'Tech Tools: Increasing Technology Training in the Curriculum of Graduate Students in Linguistics'. 86th Annual Meeting of the LSA, Portland OR.
Fokkens, Antske, Yi Zhang and Emily M. Bender. 2011. Spring Cleaning and Grammar Compression: Two Techniques for Detection of Redundancy in HPSG Grammars. Proceedings of PACLIC 2011: The 25th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation, Singapore.
Poulson, Laurie. 2011. Meta-modeling of Tense and Aspect in a Cross-linguistic Grammar Engineering Platform. UW Working Papers in Linguistics, vol 28.
Song, Sanghoun and Emily M. Bender. 2011. Using Information Structure to Improve Transfer-based MT. In Müller, Stefan (ed), Proceedings of the HPSG 2011 Conference. Stanford: CSLI. pp.348-368. [.bib]
Crowgey, Joshua and Emily M. Bender. 2011. Analyzing Interacting Phenonena: Word Order and Negation in Basque. In Müller, Stefan (ed), Proceedings of the HPSG 2011 Conference. Stanford: CSLI. pp.46-59. [.bib]
Fokkens, Antske. 2011. Metagrammar Engineering: Towards Systematic Exploration of Implemented Grammars. Proceedings of ACL 2011. [.bib]
Bender, Emily M., Dan Flickinger, Stephan Oepen. 2011. Grammar Engineering and Linguistic Hypothesis Testing: Computational Support for Complexity in Syntactic Analysis. In Bender, E.M. and Arnold, J.E. (eds) Language from a Cognitive Perspective: Grammar, Usage and Processing. Stanford: CSLI. pp.5-29.
Bender, Emily M. On Achieving and Evaluating Language Independence in NLP. Linguistic Issues in Language Technology. Special Issue on Interaction of Linguistics and Computational Linguistics, Timothy Baldwin and Valia Kordoni (eds). 6(3):1-26.
Bender, Emily M., Scott Drellishak, Antske Fokkens, Laurie Poulson and Safiyyah Saleem. 2010. Grammar Customization. Research on Language and Computation 8(1):23-72 [.bib] [Pre-print available on request.]
Safiyyah Saleem and Emily M. Bender. 2010. Argument Optionality in the LinGO Grammar Matrix. Coling 2010: Posters. pp.1068-1076. [.bib]
Bender, Emily M., Scott Drellishak, Antske Fokkens, Michael Wayne Goodman, Daniel P. Mills, Laurie Poulson, and Safiyyah Saleem. 2010. Grammar prototyping and testing with the LinGO Grammar Matrix customization system. In Proceedings of the ACL 2010 Software Demonstrations. [.bib]
Emily M. Bender, Antske Fokkens, and Safiyyah Saleem. 2010. The LinGO Grammar Matrix: Rapid Grammar Development for Hypothesis Testing. Tutorial at HPSG 2010, Paris, France, 7 July 2010.
Saleem, Safiyyah. 2010. Argument Optionality: A New Library for the Grammar Matrix Customization System. Masters thesis, University of Washington.
Drellishak, Scott. 2010. Testing a Grammar Customization System with Sahaptin. In Human Language Technologies: The 2010 Annual Conference of The North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics. Los Angeles, CA. pp.254-262. [.bib]
Emily M. Bender, Antske Fokkens, and Safiyyah Saleem. 2010. Grammar Customization with the LinGO Grammar Matrix. Tutorial at LREC 2010, Valletta Malta, 17 May 2010.
Emily M. Bender. 2010. Reweaving a Grammar for Wambaya: A Case Study in Grammar Engineering for Linguistic Hypothesis Testing. Linguistic Issues in Language Technology 3(3). pp.1-34.
Fokkens, Antske, Laurie Poulson, and Emily M. Bender. 2009. Inflectional Morphology in Turkish VP Coordination. In Müller, Stefan (ed) Proceedings of the HPSG09 Conference. Stanford: CSLI. pp.110-130. [.bib]
Drellishak, Scott. 2009. Widespread but Not Universal: Improving the Typological Coverage of the Grammar Matrix. Doctoral dissertation, University of Washington.
O'Hara, Kelly. 2008. A Morphosyntactic Infrastructure for a Grammar Customization System. Masters Thesis, University of Washington.
Drellishak, Scott. 2008. Complex Case Phenomena in the Grammar Matrix. In Müller, Stefan (ed) Proceedings of the HPSG 2008 Conference. Stanford: CSLI.
Bender, Emily M. 2008. Radical Non-Configurationality without Shuffle Operators: An Analysis of Wambaya. In Müller, Stefan (ed) Proceedings of the HPSG 2008 Conference. Stanford: CSLI.
Bender, Emily M. and David Goss-Grubbs. 2008. Semantic Representations of Syntactically Marked Discourse Status in Crosslinguistic Perspective. In Proceedings of STEP 2008. College Publications. [preprint]
Bender, Emily M. 2008. Evaluating a Crosslinguistic Grammar Resource: A Case Study of Wambaya. In Proceedings of ACL08:HLT, Columbus, OH. [.bib]
Bender, Emily M. 2008. Grammar Engineering for Linguistic Hypothesis Testing. In Nicholas Gaylord, Alexis Palmer, and Elias Ponvert (eds). Proceedings of Texas Linguistic Society X Conference: Computational Linguistics for Less-Studied Languages. CSLI Publications ONLINE. pp.16-36.
Bender, Emily M. 2007. Combining Research and Pedagogy in the Development of a Crosslinguistic Grammar Resource. In Proceedings of the GEAF 2007 Workshop. Stanford CA: CSLI Publications. [.bib]
Bender, Emily M., Laurie Poulson, Scott Drellishak, and Chris Evans. 2007. Validation and Regression Testing for a Cross-linguistic Grammar Resource. In Proceedings of the ACL 2007 Workshop on Deep Linguistic Processing. pp.136--143. [.bib]
Poulson, Laurie. 2006. Evaluating a cross-linguistic grammar model: Methodology and test-suite resource development. Masters Thesis, University of Washington.
Bender, Emily M. and Dan Flickinger. 2005. Rapid Prototyping of Scalable Grammars: Towards Modularity in Extensions to a Langauge-Independent Core. Proceedings of IJCNLP-05 (Posters/Demos), Jeju Island, Korea. [.bib]
Drellishak, Scott and Emily M. Bender. 2005. A Coordination Module for a Crosslinguistic Grammar Resource Stephan Müller, ed. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar. Stanford: CSLI. [.bib]
Bender, Emily M., Scott Drellishak, Bill McNeill, and Laurie Poulson. 2005. 'Semantic Constraints on Syntactic NPs in Grammar Engineering.' Presented at the annual meeting of the LSA, Oakland CA. [handout] [handout appendix].
Bender, Emily M., Dan Flickinger, Jeff Good and Ivan A. Sag. 2004. Montage: Leveraging Advances in Grammar Engineering, Linguistic Ontologies, and Mark-up for the Documentation of Underdescribed Languages. Proceedings of the Workshop on First Steps for the Documentation of Minority Languages: Computational Linguistic Tools for Morphology, Lexicon and Corpus Compilation, LREC 2004, Lisbon, Portugal.
Flickinger, Dan and Emily M. Bender. 2003. Compositional Semantics in a Multilingual Grammar Resource. Proceedings of the Workshop on Ideas and Stratgies for Multilingual Grammar Development, ESSLLI 2003, Vienna. [.bib]
Flickinger, Dan, Emily M. Bender and Stephan Oepen. 2003. MRS in the LinGO Grammar Matrix: A Practical User's Guide. ms.
Bender, Emily M., Dan Flickinger and Stephan Oepen. 2002. The Grammar Matrix: An Open-Source Starter-Kit for the Rapid Development of Cross-Linguistically Consistent Broad-Coverage Precision Grammars. Carroll, John, Nelleke Oostdijk, and Richard Sutcliffe, eds. Proceedings of the Workshop on Grammar Engineering and Evaluation at the 19th International Conference on Computational Linguistics. Taipei, Taiwan. pp. 8-14. [.bib]
The LinGO Grammar Matrix is being produced in the Linguistics Department at the University of Washington and at LinGO Laboratory at CSLI at Stanford University, both part of the DELPH-IN Programme. Many grammar development efforts involving the Matrix were supported by and contributed to Project Deep Thought.
The Grammar Matrix is a key component of the Montage project.
Grammars based on the LinGO Grammar Matrix are being developed by NTNU Trondheim (the NorSource Grammar of Norwegian), the Department of Computational Linguistics at the University of Saarland (the Modern Greek Resource Grammar), and CELI (the Italian HPSG Grammar).
The Matrix and the grammars it is derived from are developed within the framework of HPSG, and in particular a variety of HPSG with similarites to Construction Grammar.
We are situated in the larger domain of multilingual grammar engineering, which includes the LFG ParGram Project, among others. Various projects in this domain were presented at the ESSLLI 2003 workshop "Ideas and Strategies for Multilingual Grammar Development".
In our long range goals of providing tools for field linguists and the construction of a database of data and analyses of diverse languages, we find much convergence with the EMELD, OLAC, and Rosetta projects.
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. BCS-0644097. Additional support for Grammar Matrix development came from a gift to the Turing Center from the Utilika Foundation.
Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
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